For those of you who never had to work with Check Point FireWall-1 4.1 and earlier, you're lucky you likely never EVER had to use putkeys.

The fw putkey was used to establish authentication between the Management and Firewall modules. The problem was: the authentication would frequently break. Especially in larger, distributed environments. Often for reasons that no one outside of a few developers in Tel Aviv never fully understood.

The eventual replacement for fw putkey was SIC, which was added in FireWall-1 NG (5.0). It is based on certificates and is way easier to set up. It's also far less prone to random breakage. 

The following classic article is presented for nostalgia purposes only. Hopefully no one in their right mind still needs this article, which was very popular on my FireWall-1 FAQ back in the day. It was the collective wisdom of my peers and my own experience as of around 2000 or so.

Can't Get Putkeys to Work

Q:

I can't get my putkeys to work ir I can't keep them working. What am I
doing
wrong?

A:

One thing that I've always done on habit with my firewall systems is to

make sure all IPs on both the management and firewall are resolvable to
a
hostname within the system's local host file and that the systems are
configured
to look at the local hosts file before looking to DNS. As a
result, the
number of issues I personally have had with putkeys in any
systems I have
personally set up have been minimal. I would suggest doing
this before redoing
all your putkeys. Also, double-check to make sure the time on your management
console and firewall module have their time synchronized (relative to GMT).

One known issue: If you are using skey authentication on versions of
FireWall-1
prior to 4.0 SP5, there is an issue whereby the authentication
can get out
of sync. Either use fwn1 (which works on systems 4.0 SP4 and
earlier) or
use none authentication. For more information, see: Failed

to Install Security Policy on fw62bs01: Unauthorized action.

If you have to redo your putkeys, there are three methods one can use

to do putkeys, one of which usually works:

Putkey with all IPs

A trick I have found that works is to use all possible IP addresses in
a
putkey command. For example, if my management console had only one IP
(172.31.0.42)
and my firewall had several IPs:

le0: 153.1.214.10
qe0: 192.168.0.10
qe1: 172.16.0.10
qe2: 10.0.0.10

My putkey from the management console to the firewall would look like

this:

fw putkey 153.1.214.10 192.168.0.10 172.16.0.10 10.0.0.10

And my putkey from the firewall to the management console would be:

fw putkey 172.31.0.42

In a step-by-step manner, here is what you would do:

  1. fwstop both the management and firewall modules
  2.  

  3. On the FireWall, type: fw putkey 172.31.0.42
  4.  

  5. On the management console, type: fw putkey 153.1.214.10 192.168.0.10

    172.16.0.10 10.0.0.10

  6. fwstart the management console
  7.  

  8. fwstart the firewall module

Forcing the nodename IP

When performing the authentication necessary for remote management, FireWall-1

will attempt to use the 'nodename IP' to communicate between the systems.

If the nodename IP does not exist or is not reachable from all systems,
this
causes putkeys to not work. A way to get around this problem is to
use putkey
in the following manner:

fw putkey -n local-ip remote-ip

The "local ip" here depends on which interface you will need to talk
out
to see the remote system. The "remote ip" will be the IP address that
is
closest to you.

For instance, if your firewall had the following interfaces:

le0: 153.1.214.10
qe0: 192.168.0.10
qe1: 172.16.0.10
qe2: 10.0.0.10

And your management console had the following interfaces:

le0: 172.16.10.42

On the firewall console, you would type:

fw putkey -n 172.16.0.10 172.16.10.42

On the management console, you would type:

fw putkey -n 172.16.10.42 172.16.0.10

In a step-by-step manner, here is what you would do:

  1. fwstop both the management and firewall modules
  2. On the FireWall, type: fw putkey -n 172.16.0.10 172.16.10.42
  3. On the management console, type: fw putkey -n 172.16.10.42 172.16.0.10
  4. fwstart the management console
  5. fwstart the firewall module

Touching all putkey-related files

Karim Ismail makes the following

suggestion: Simply "touch" the following files (i.e. use the Unix/IPSO
"touch"
command) before performing the putkey command:

$FWDIR/conf/fwauth.keys

$FWDIR/conf/serverkeys.*

$FWDIR/database/authkeys.C

$FWDIR/database/opsec_authkeys.C

The control.map file

Sometimes, you will need to add IP addresses to $FWDIR/lib/control.map
because,
for whatever reason, FireWall-1 is not seeing the IP address it
is hearing
the connection from as the appropriate type of host (either
as a remote
firewall module or a management console). In any case, you
can insure that
FireWall-1 is handling this correctly by editing $FWDIR/lib/control.map.

Add all the IPs of the remote hosts you wish to authenticate with

in a new line (above the MASTERS, CLIENT, and * lines) and force the authentication

that will be used for these IPs to the appropriate authentication scheme

(fwn1, fwa1, skey).

a.b.c.d, e.f.g.h : */fwa1
MASTERS :stat,getkey,gettopo/none opsec/fwn1 */fwa1
CLIENT  :load,db_download,fetch,log/fwa1   opsec/fwn1

*/none
*       :stat,getkey,gettopo/none
unload,ioctl,load,db_download/deny
opsec/fwn1 */fwa1

If you edit this file, stop and start FireWall-1. For more information 
on control.map, see: Failed to Install Security Policy
on fw62bs01: Unauthorized action

Flushing All Putkey-Related Files

There are some cases where even this does not work. Here is a procedure

developed by Lance Spitzner (which

I have slightly modified):

On the Management Module

  •  fwstop
  •  Backup the following files by copying them to <filename>.old
    • $FWDIR/database/authkeys.C
    • $FWDIR/database/opsec_authkeys.C
    • $FWDIR/conf/fwauth.keys
    • $FWDIR/conf/serverkeys.*
  • Remove the above files
  • Confirm that $FWDIR/lib/control.map is using the same authentication
    as
    the remote modules (fwa1 or skey).
  • Make sure /etc/hosts has an entry for the remote module(s).

On the Remote Module

  • fwstop
  • Backup the following files by copying them to <filename>.old
    • $FWDIR/database/authkeys.C
    • $FWDIR/database/opsec_authkeys.C
    • $FWDIR/conf/fwauth.keys
    • $FWDIR/conf/serverkeys.*
  • Remove the above files
  • Confirm that $FWDIR/lib/control.map is using the same authentication
    as
    the management module (fwa1 or skey).
  • Make sure /etc/hosts has an entry for the management module.

On the Management Module: fw putkey -p <password> -n <local IP>
<remote
IP>

On the Remote Module: fw putkey -p <password> -n <local IP>
<remote
IP>

On the Mangement Module: fwstart

On the Remote Module: fwstart

That's it!  If that did not do the trick, ensure all Network Objects

in Rule Base match /etc/hosts file and fw putkey IP addresses.  Repeat

steps above.

If you don't want to fwstop the firewall modules

I personally have had success sometimes simply killing and restarting fwd,

which is not as drastic as restarting FireWall-1, but can make certain
services
unavailable. However, Bradley

Filmer says this method does not require fwstopping the firewall module.

On the firewall module, edit $FWDIR/database/authkeys.C and remove everything

between the opening parenthesis "(" and the closing parenthesis ")". Redo

the putkeys using one of the methods above (he suggests using the -n method,

but only use that method if you have to). On the management console, do
the
same thing except perform an fwstop and fwstart afterwords.

As a Last Resort

Sometimes, you will need to reboot either the management console, firewall

module, or both to make putkeys work. Don't necessarily have an explanation

for it. If you reboot one but not the other, execute an fwstop; fwstart
on
the other box.

Even after that, it may not work either. What you can do is disable
putkey
authentication entirely. Note that this is not entirely recommended
in all
cases, but if you need to get it working quickly, this trick will
definately
work. Edit control.map as above on all involved systems and
use "none" as
the authentication scheme. Stop and start FireWall-1. You
will no longer
have any more troubles with putkeys between these systems
as you have effectively
reduced the authentication to IP only.

I decided to move PhoneBoy's Security Theater off of Wordpress onto Posthaven

On the plus side, it's one less instance of Wordpress to maintain. On the minus side, I had to copy/paste the old articles in since there is no way to import Wordpress as of yet. But it was under 100 articles and it was kind of nice to see my thoughts on security from the last several years again.

The reality is, the threats haven't changed. We've had to evolve the tools in order to address increasingly complex threats. You can look at Check Point's own product evolution to get a sense of that.

Also, the basics haven't changed. A lot of security risks can be sufficiently mitigated by properly segmenting your networks, using sufficiently complex passwords that are unique, proper monitoring of the logs of your security devices, and keeping your software up-to-date with the latest security patches. 

Earlier this week, I hung out with Jeremy Kaye, one of our in-house compliance experts at Check Point:

http://www.youtube.com/embed/uvL6HdlrW08

While I've been doing InfoSec for a while, or at least working in companies that sell InfoSec products, compliance isn't something I've had a ton of direct experience with. Sure, Check Point customers used our products to help meet various compliance regulations, but until Check Point acquired DynaSec in 2011, there wasn't a team inside Check Point dedicated to this topic.

While we had some technical challenges with the Google+ Hangout itself (and it was the first one we did at Check Point), I think the conversation with Jeremy went fairly well. The questions I asked where ones I've always wanted answers to. Like, what good is compliance? Why does it seem like compliance is in the eye of the auditor? Why so many regulations anyway?

The big takeaway for me from this conversation is that security should drive your compliance efforts, not the other way around. Because chances are, if you have a strong information security program in place already, compliance is pretty straightforward, no matter which regulations you have to comply with.

Post with Large Feature Image and Text

This is a sample post with a large feature image up top and tons of text. Odio ad blue bottle vinyl, 90’s narwhal commodo bitters pour-over nostrud. Ugh est hashtag in, fingerstache adipisicing laboris esse Pinterest shabby chic Portland. Shoreditch bicycle rights anim, flexitarian laboris put a bird on it vinyl cupidatat narwhal. Hashtag artisan skateboard, flannel Bushwick nesciunt salvia aute fixie do plaid post-ironic dolor McSweeney’s. Cliche pour-over chambray nulla four loko skateboard sapiente hashtag.

Vero laborum commodo occupy. Semiotics voluptate mumblecore pug. Cosby sweater ullamco quinoa ennui assumenda, sapiente occupy delectus lo-fi. Ea fashion axe Marfa cillum aliquip. Retro Bushwick keytar cliche. Before they sold out sustainable gastropub Marfa readymade, ethical Williamsburg skateboard brunch qui consectetur gentrify semiotics. Mustache cillum irony, fingerstache magna pour-over keffiyeh tousled selfies.

Cupidatat 90’s lo-fi authentic try-hard

In pug Portland incididunt mlkshk put a bird on it vinyl quinoa. Terry Richardson shabby chic +1, scenester Tonx excepteur tempor fugiat voluptate fingerstache aliquip nisi next level. Farm-to-table hashtag Truffaut, Odd Future ex meggings gentrify single-origin coffee try-hard 90’s.

  • Sartorial hoodie
  • Labore viral forage
  • Tote bag selvage
  • DIY exercitation et id ugh tumblr church-key

Incididunt umami sriracha, ethical fugiat VHS ex assumenda yr irure direct trade. Marfa Truffaut bicycle rights, kitsch placeat Etsy kogi asymmetrical. Beard locavore flexitarian, kitsch photo booth hoodie plaid ethical readymade leggings yr.

Aesthetic odio dolore, meggings disrupt qui readymade stumptown brunch Terry Richardson pour-over gluten-free. Banksy american apparel in selfies, biodiesel flexitarian organic meh wolf quinoa gentrify banjo kogi. Readymade tofu ex, scenester dolor umami fingerstache occaecat fashion axe Carles jean shorts minim. Keffiyeh fashion axe nisi Godard mlkshk dolore. Lomo you probably haven’t heard of them eu non, Odd Future Truffaut pug keytar meggings McSweeney’s Pinterest cred. Etsy literally aute esse, eu bicycle rights qui meggings fanny pack. Gentrify leggings pug flannel duis.

Forage occaecat cardigan qui

Fashion axe hella gastropub lo-fi kogi 90’s aliquip +1 veniam delectus tousled. Cred sriracha locavore gastropub kale chips, iPhone mollit sartorial. Anim dolore 8-bit, pork belly dolor photo booth aute flannel small batch. Dolor disrupt ennui, tattooed whatever salvia Banksy sartorial roof party selfies raw denim sint meh pour-over. Ennui eu cardigan sint, gentrify iPhone cornhole.

Whatever velit occaecat quis deserunt gastropub, leggings elit tousled roof party 3 wolf moon kogi pug blue bottle ea. Fashion axe shabby chic Austin quinoa pickled laborum bitters next level, disrupt deep v accusamus non fingerstache.

Tote bag asymmetrical elit sunt. Occaecat authentic Marfa, hella McSweeney’s next level irure veniam master cleanse. Sed hoodie letterpress artisan wolf leggings, 3 wolf moon commodo ullamco. Anim occupy ea labore Terry Richardson. Tofu ex master cleanse in whatever pitchfork banh mi, occupy fugiat fanny pack Austin authentic. Magna fugiat 3 wolf moon, labore McSweeney’s sustainable vero consectetur. Gluten-free disrupt enim, aesthetic fugiat jean shorts trust fund keffiyeh magna try-hard.

Hoodie Duis

Actually salvia consectetur, hoodie duis lomo YOLO sunt sriracha. Aute pop-up brunch farm-to-table odio, salvia irure occaecat. Sriracha small batch literally skateboard. Echo Park nihil hoodie, aliquip forage artisan laboris. Trust fund reprehenderit nulla locavore. Stumptown raw denim kitsch, keffiyeh nulla twee dreamcatcher fanny pack ullamco 90’s pop-up est culpa farm-to-table. Selfies 8-bit do pug odio.

Thundercats Ho!

Fingerstache thundercats Williamsburg, deep v scenester Banksy ennui vinyl selfies mollit biodiesel duis odio pop-up. Banksy 3 wolf moon try-hard, sapiente enim stumptown deep v ad letterpress. Squid beard brunch, exercitation raw denim yr sint direct trade. Raw denim narwhal id, flannel DIY McSweeney’s seitan. Letterpress artisan bespoke accusamus, meggings laboris consequat Truffaut qui in seitan. Sustainable cornhole Schlitz, twee Cosby sweater banh mi deep v forage letterpress flannel whatever keffiyeh. Sartorial cred irure, semiotics ethical sed blue bottle nihil letterpress.

Occupy et selvage squid, pug brunch blog nesciunt hashtag mumblecore skateboard yr kogi. Ugh small batch swag four loko. Fap post-ironic qui tote bag farm-to-table american apparel scenester keffiyeh vero, swag non pour-over gentrify authentic pitchfork. Schlitz scenester lo-fi voluptate, tote bag irony bicycle rights pariatur vero Vice freegan wayfarers exercitation nisi shoreditch. Chambray tofu vero sed. Street art swag literally leggings, Cosby sweater mixtape PBR lomo Banksy non in pitchfork ennui McSweeney’s selfies. Odd Future Banksy non authentic.

Aliquip enim artisan dolor post-ironic. Pug tote bag Marfa, deserunt pour-over Portland wolf eu odio intelligentsia american apparel ugh ea. Sunt viral et, 3 wolf moon gastropub pug id. Id fashion axe est typewriter, mlkshk Portland art party aute brunch. Sint pork belly Cosby sweater, deep v mumblecore kitsch american apparel. Try-hard direct trade tumblr sint skateboard. Adipisicing bitters excepteur biodiesel, pickled gastropub aute veniam.

Ok, this is a completely shameless plug for my employer. But it's really big. And really small at the same time. And my take on it, which wasn't cleared with the marketing folks, and thus my, albeit biased, opinion.

The Check Point 600 Appliance, which was announced today at Interop, represents Check Point's refreshed entry into the SMB Security space. It provides the same security functionality you'd find in Check Point's larger appliances in something that fits into an SMB--both in terms of form factor and price. This includes Check Point's award-winning IPS, App Control, URL Filtering, Anti-Virus, Anti-Spam, VPN, oh and don't forget the firewall :)

If you're familiar with the SG80, which Check Point launched a couple years back, the new 600 Appliance looks a bit like that, though the internals are slightly different from the SG80. There are standard USB ports, Express Card and SD-card slots in the 600 as well as optional WiFi and ADSL ports. It also includes a revamped Web Interface that incorporates functionality from the UTM-1 EDGE and [email protected] appliances allowing full management of the security policy across all Software Blades.

Under the hood? It's nearly the same code that runs in the larger Check Point appliances--Check Point R75.20 running Embedded Gaia, to be exact. When you SSH or serial console into the appliance, you are presented with clish, which functions similar to how it does on one of the larger appliances. You can also drop into Expert mode for more advanced debugging, which again, works very similar to how its done on the larger gateways. 

The main differences between the 600 and the Check Point 1100 Appliance, which was announced a few weeks ago are:

  • Lower price: List price of a 600 is roughly $200 cheaper than the comparable 1100 model.
  • Chassis color: Bright orange, like the old [email protected] boxes.
  • Central Management: While the 1100 can be centrally managed with standard R75.46 or R76 management (standalone or Provider-1), the 600 can only be centrally managed by Check Point Cloud-Managed Security service.

In any case, I am truly excited about this as finally, SMBs can finally get the same Enterprise-grade security that the Fortune 100 relies on for a fraction of the cost--starting at $399.

Check Point's SMB Portal has information about the new appliances as well as how to acquire them.